On 9 April 1991, shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Supreme Council of Georgia declared independence after a referendum held on 31 March. On 26 May, Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected as the first President of independent Georgia. Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi’s authority over regions such as Abkhazia and South Ossetia that had been classified as autonomous oblasts under the Soviet Union. In May 1801, under the oversight of General Carl Heinrich von Knorring, Imperial Russia transferred power in eastern Georgia to the government headed by General Ivan Petrovich Lazarev. The Georgian nobility did not accept the decree until 12 April 1802, when Knorring assembled the nobility at the Sioni Cathedral and forced them to take an oath on the Imperial Crown of Russia.

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  • Alexander Mikaberidze wrote that these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān (“wolf”) as the root of the word.
  • The sons and grandsons of Ashot I established three separate branches, frequently struggling with each other and with neighbouring rulers.
  • This paper marked the first time a member of the elevator industry offered a mathematical means of determining elevator service.
  • The main roads through the mountain range into Russian territory lead through the Roki Tunnel between Shida Kartli and North Ossetia and the Darial Gorge .
  • The doors then close after an adjustable time period and the car remains unusable until reset, usually by cycling the elevator main power switch.
  • Their adoption was aided by a 1945 elevator operator strike in New York City, and the addition of an emergency stop button, emergency telephone, and a soothing explanatory automated voice.

Roped hydraulics use a combination of both ropes and hydraulic power to raise and lower cars. Recent innovations include permanent magnet motors, machine room-less rail mounted gearless machines, and microprocessor controls. An inverter-controlled gearless drive system is applied in high-speed elevators worldwide. The Toshiba company continued research on thyristors for use in inverter control and dramatically enhanced their switching capacity, resulting in the development of insulated gate bipolar transistors at the end of the 1980s. The IGBT realized increased switching frequency and reduced magnetic noise in the motor, eliminating the need for a filter circuit and allowing a more compact system. In 1887, American Inventor Alexander Miles of Duluth, Minnesota patented an elevator with automatic doors that closed off the elevator shaft when the car was not being entered or exited.

STC Delta now produces a variety of military equipment, including armoured vehicles, artillery systems, aviation systems, personal protection equipment, and small arms. There are two tramways within the Arch, one at the north end, and the other at the south end. The entry doors have windows, so people travelling within the Arch are able to see the interior structure of the Arch during the ride to and from the observation deck. At the beginning of the trip the cars hang from the drive cables, but as the angle of the shaft changes, they end up beside and then on top of the cables. Called a tram or tramway, people enter this unique tramway much as one would enter an ordinary elevator, through double doors.

Passenger Service

Observatory service elevators often convey other facts of interest, https://carlosfishandchips.co.uk/carlos-morpeth including elevator speed, stopwatch, and current position , as with the case for Taipei 101’s service elevators. There have occasionally been belt lifts for humans; these typically have steps about every 2 m (6 ft 6.7 in) along the length of the belt, which moves vertically, so that the passenger can stand on one step and hold on to the one above. These belts are sometimes used, for example, to carry the employees of parking garages, but are considered too dangerous for public use.

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Heraclius, who had risen to prominence through the Iranian ranks, was awarded the crown of Kakheti by Nader himself in 1744 for his loyal service to him. Heraclius nevertheless stabilized Eastern Georgia to a degree in the ensuing period and was able to guarantee its autonomy throughout the Iranian Zand period. An Arab incursion into western Georgia led by Marwan II, was repelled by Leon I (r. 720–740) jointly with his Lazic and Iberian allies in 736.

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When drivers are able to stay in your app as they navigate to a destination, you can send them alerts and notifications, add trips on the fly, and get a better overall look at their navigation behavior. With more data and better control, you can optimize resources and routes, decreasing idle time for your drivers, improving wait times for your customers, and creating efficiencies for your business. The most popular sports in Georgia are football, basketball, rugby union, wrestling, judo, and weightlifting.

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Throughout the remainder of the Soviet period, Georgia’s economy continued to grow and experience significant improvement, though it increasingly exhibited blatant corruption and alienation of the government from the people. The extinction of the Iberian royal dynasties, such as Guaramids and the Chosroids, and also the Abbasid preoccupation with their own civil wars and conflict with the Byzantine Empire, led to the Bagrationi family’s growth in prominence. The head of the Bagrationi dynasty Ashot I of Iberia (r. 813–826), who had migrated to the former southwestern territories of Iberia, came to rule over Tao-Klarjeti and restored the Principate of Iberia in 813.

The region’s weather patterns are influenced both by dry Caspian air masses from the east and humid Black Sea air masses from the west. The penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is often blocked by mountain ranges that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation. The wettest periods generally occur during spring and autumn, while winter and summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in the low-lying areas) and relatively cold winters. As in the western parts of the nation, elevation plays an important role in eastern Georgia where climatic conditions above 1,500 metres are considerably colder than in the low-lying areas. While human rights activists maintained that the protests were peaceful, the government pointed out that many protesters were masked and armed with heavy sticks and molotov cocktails.

By 1994 the gross domestic product had shrunk to a quarter of that of 1989. Slightly more than 6,500 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species, have been recorded from Georgia, but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Georgia, including species not yet recorded, is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about seven per cent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.